Transcription is the process of creating a complementary strand of DNA from an existing strand of DNA. During the process of transcription, several molecules are produced that enable the replication and expression of genetic information. But which of these molecules are actually produced by transcription?
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
The primary molecule produced by transcription is messenger RNA (mRNA). This molecule is a temporary copy of the DNA sequence, and contains the instructions necessary to make proteins. The mRNA is then translated into a protein using the genetic code, allowing the organism to execute the instructions encoded in the DNA.
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
Transfer RNA (tRNA) is also produced during transcription. This molecule serves as an adapter in the translation process, allowing the information encoded in the mRNA to be converted into a protein. tRNA molecules contain specific amino acids that match the codons in the mRNA, allowing them to act as a bridge between the mRNA and the protein.
Non-Coding RNA (ncRNA)
Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is also produced during transcription. This type of RNA has a variety of functions, including regulating gene expression, acting as signal molecules, and acting as enzymes. Examples of ncRNA include microRNAs, small interfering RNAs, and long non-coding RNAs.
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is also produced during transcription. This type of RNA is important for the formation of ribosomes, the cell’s protein-making machinery. rRNA helps to assemble the proteins necessary for translation of the mRNA into a protein.
Transcription is an essential process in the replication and expression of genetic information. During transcription, four important molecules are produced: messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), non-coding RNA (ncRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). These molecules enable the translation of genetic information into proteins, allowing organisms to carry out the instructions encoded in their DNA.